Using Arduino to Wirelessly Control Appliances

The Arduino Uno, and variants, should only be used for directly powering peripheral modules and not devices.  Consider the maximum current consumption when determining what is a device and what is a module. A string of lights is more of a device as opposed to a panel indicator light, motor controller boards are modules, not the motors they drive, MOSFET boards, not the valves or solenoids that they control.

The DIY Smart Garden System

My name is Cory, I'm a Technical Craftsman specializing in creative problem solving within electronics and software engineering.  Professionally, I've worked as an electronics engineer, a plastics fabricator, software engineer, an industrial laser technician, and, of course, a coffee barista.  I've spent the last several years working on a Smart Garden System project I named, hydroMazing.  I'm sharing my work with you because I would like to empower everyone who is interested in a "Smart" approach to gardening.

Managing Nutrient Solution Systems

A nutrient solution system typically consists of a two or three part liquid solution containing the essential diet for a plant added to clean tap water.  The manufacturer of the nutrient solution will include or reference a feeding schedule recommended for various common types of plants. Unfortunately, most minerals are mined and processed by the manufacturers, however, many offer an organic option while some specialize in only organic.

Wired or Wireless?

Electricity replaces the sun, wind, and some natural processes as the dependency for plants to grow indoors.   The first glaring problem with the typical indoor garden is that extension wires are annoying and a potential safety hazard.  On the other hand, wireless communications can lack the reliability of the wired variant.  Going further, should the system be available to the local network or should it be connected to the Internet?

Why Arduino when you can Pi?

The greatest advantage to using the Arduino family of microcontrollers for DIY electronics projects, is that they are ubiquitous.  Since they are so available, they are inexpensive and you can find open-source software to get started. If you’ve ever had the opportunity to work with an Arduino Uno microcontroller board, then you’ve probably executed the flashing LED example.  Going further, you might attach a button, or switch, to trigger the LED or to turn it off making the project interactive.  There are many sensors that could be connected to the Arduino Uno and setup to trigger events, such as the LED flashing, using threshold values that we would need to experiment with in order to figure out what settings work best for creating the effect we want.

Digging Deeper into Indoor Gardening

What do plants actually require in order to grow well? It is important for context and it is important for every human to understand what it takes to grow plants, even if the future doesn’t allow for outdoor cultivation.  At a minimum this is my effort to prevent future generations from suffering the fate of a World without plants as proposed by Mike Judge in his movie “Idiocracy” where people no longer understand why plants wouldn’t want to live on a beverage containing “electrolytes.”

Starting a Smart Indoor Garden

A basic, low-cost, reliable, indoor garden is a controlled environment typically in the form of a tent inside a room, inside a garage.  You have one or two AC-powered ventilation fans, recirculating and/or one is the intake and the other is the exhaust.  You have two super bright fluorescent lamps connected to a mechanical/digital timer controlled AC outlet providing the plants with their appropriate light-cycle.  Your plants are contained in soil, or a basic deep water culture hydroponics system. A large plastic reservoir with multiple grow baskets containing clay pellets partially submerged in the nutrient solution being aerated by an aquarium-style air-pump that’s connected to an air-stone, creating bubbles, preventing stagnation, keeping the culture healthy. 

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